ТРАНСПОРТ, ЕКОЛОГИЯ - УСТОЙЧИВО РАЗВИТИЕ
Сборник доклади от научно-техническа конференция ЕКО Варна
ISSN (Online) 2367- 6965
ISSN (Print) 2367- 6299
Том XXIII, 2016
Главен научен редактор:
Проф. дтн инж.
Технически Университет - Варна
Сборникът с докладите от конференцията “EКО ВАРНА“ излиза ежегодно, като първият брой е издаден през 1995 година. Основен организатор на конференцията е катедра „Транспортна техника и технологии” при Технически университет - Варна.
Съорганизатори са ТО на НТС Варна, Българска асоциация автомобили на природен газ, Български газов център, СНАТЕБ и др. Участници са научни работници от всички висши учебни заведения в България, екологични и газови организации, учени от Сърбия, Русия, Украйна, Турция, Полша и др.
Следващото двадесет и трето издание на конференцията ще се проведе от
15 - 17 юни 2017 г. в конферентната зала на
Swiss-Belhotel Dimyat Varna.
Покана за конференцията 2017 г. може да изтеглите от тук!
Актуален сборник том XXIII, 2016
REGARDING THE CHOICE OF ATMOSPHERIC OR TURBOCHARGED ENGINE
In recent years, car manufacturers and, in particular, benzine internal combustion engines (BICE), seek to retain nominal power of engines produced by reducing the working volume (downsizing) and forcing them through turbocharging. Guiding rationale is that in this way reduces the cost of the device while maintaining the performance ability of the vehicle. But is that so? Or is it a publicity stunt, unused service-faith whose interests. The purpose of this article is to show there now-sense end user to buy cars with engines with turbocharging or not!
downsizing, fuel consumption, ICE, turbocharged
 Lilov Ts. Rakovodstvo za kursovo proektirane po dvigateli s vatreshno gorene. Zemizdat. Sofia, 1976.
 Stankov Em. Lektsionen material po „Dinamika, konstruktsiya i izchislenie na DVG“, RU „An. Kanchev“.
 Selifanov V. i dr. Teoriya avtomobila, M, MGTU „MAMA“, 2007.
POSSIBILITIES OF USAGE OF N-BUTANOL IN THE DIESEL ENGINES
The interest of using alcohols in diesel engines has grown in the recent years. The main reason is the presence of oxygen in the alcohols. The most used alcohols in diesel engines are ethanol and butanol. The butanol has closer properties to conventional diesel in comparison with ethanol. The butanol has 4 isomers, but in diesel engine is used primary n-butanol. The butanol could be produced from crude oil or biomass. There are few processes of production of butanol by biomass, including ABE and Butyfix processes. The best way for usage of butanol in diesel engine in by mixing in blend with diesel, up to 20 per cent n-butanol in the blend. The different properties of the blend could be change the performance and emission characteristics of the engines. The presence of oxygen could reduce PM emissions, but lower low calorific value could increase BSFC.
n-butanol, diesel engines, production, properties.
1. Smerkowska, Barbara (2011). Biobutanol – production and application in diesel engines. Chemik, 65, 6, 549-556.
2. Goyal, N., A. Nayyar, C. Kumar (2015). Experimental investigation of the performance of VCR diesel engine fuelled by n-butanol diesel blend. IJRET, 4, 2, 444-450.
3. Sarathy, Subram (2010). Chemical kinetic modeling of biofuel combustion. University of Toronto, PhD Thesis.
4. Siwale, Lenox (2012). Effect of oxygenated additives in conventional fuels for reciprocating internal combustion engines on performance, combustion and emission characteristics. Tshwane University of Technology, PhD Thesis.
5. Feng, Xuan (2011). Investigation of combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends. University of Illinois, PhD Thesis.
6. Kumar, B., S. Saravanan (2016). Use of higher alcohol biofuels in diesel engines: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 84-115.
7. Szulczyk, Kenneth (2010). Which is a better transportation fuel – butanol or ethanol. International Journal of Energy and Environment, 1, 1.
8. Choi, B., X. Jiang, Y. Kim, G. Jung, C. Lee, I. Choi, C. Song (2015). Effect of diesel fuel blend with n-butanol on the emission of a turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engine. Applied Energy, 146, 20-28.
9. Sahin, Z., O. Aksu (2015). Experimental investigation of the effects of using low ratio n-butanol/diesel fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emissions in a turbocharged DI diesel engine. Renewable Energy 77, 279 – 290.
10. Rakopoulos, D., C. Rakopoulos, E. Giakoumis, R. Papagiannakis, D. Kyritsys (2014). Influence of properties of various common bio-fuels on the combustion and emission characteristics of high-speed DI (direct injection) diesel
COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF DIESEL ENGINE WORKING WITH DIESEL – BUTANOL FUEL BLENDS
Krasimir Markov, Hristo Stanchev
The main advantages of the butanol are its higher calorific value, better mixing with diesel, higher viscosity and higher cetane number in comparison with other alcohols. Experimental study has been carried out to test the mixtures of butanol and diesel on a common rail direct injection diesel engine under a variety of load operating conditions. Results from the tests are analyzed to determine the effect of butanol content on diesel engine characteristics and emissions. Results show that BSFC increase with increasing percentage of butanol in the mixture. The PM emissions reduce in comparison with neat diesel fuel while the impact of diesel-butanol mixture on NOx emissions is not clear. The HC emissions increase significantly in the same time.
diesel engine, n- butanol, performance, emission
1. Szwaja, S., J.D. Naber (2010). Combustion of n-butanol in a spark-ignition IC engine. Fuel, 89, 7, 1573-1582.
2. Wigg, B.R., E.R. Coverdill, C.F. Lee, C.D. Kyritsis (2011). Emission characteristics of neat butanol fuel using a port fuel-injected spark-ignition engine. SAE paper 2011-01-0902.
3. Stanchev, H., K. Hadjiev, A. Abet Ali (2011). Investigation of the performance and emissions of gasoline engine operating on Butanol-Gasoline fuel blends. Proceeding of ECOS 2011, Novi Sad, Serbia, July 4 – 7, 2011, 489-495.
4. Feng, Xuan (2011). Investigation of combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends. PhD Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
5. Rakopoulos, D.C., C.D. Rakopoulos, D.T. Hountalas, E.C. Kakaras, E.G. Giakoumis, R.G. Papagiannakis (2010). Investigation of the performance and emissions of bus engine operating on butanol/diesel fuel blends. Fuel, 89, 10, 2781-2790.
6. Kumar, S., J.H. Cho, J. Park, I. Moon (2013). Advances in diesel-alcohol blends and their effects on the performance and emissions of diesel engines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 22, 46-72, ISSN 1364-0321.
7. Vlachos, Theodoros (2013). Experimental investigation on performance and emissions of an automotive diesel engine fuelled with biofuels. PhD Thesis, Politecnico di Torino.
8. Siwale, L., L. Kristof, T. Adam, A. Bereszky, M. Mbarawa, A. Penninger, A. Kolesnikov (2013). Combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a turbo-charged compression ignition engine. Fuel, 107, 409-418.
9. Yao, M., H. Wang, Z. Zheng, Y. Yue (2010). Experimental study of n-butanol additive and multi-injection on HD diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel, 89, 2191-2201.
10. Giakoumis, E.G., C.D. Rakopoulos, A.M. Dimaratos, D.C. Rakopoulos (2013). Exhaust emissions with ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends during transient operation: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 17, 170-190.
11. Siwale, Lennox (2012). Effect of oxygenated additives in conventional fuels for reciprocating internal combustion engines on performance, combustion and emission characteristics. Doctoral thesis for the degree “Doctor Technologiae”, Tswane University of Technology, June 2012.
RESULTS OF STATISTICAL RESEARCH ON STABILITY OF ATV MOVEMENT IN DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE
In this paper are presented results of the statistical survey of drivers of ATVs. The main problems causing accidents that occur when driving ATV's are associated with the loss of stability in movement. The purpose of this work is through a survey to determine the frequency and different conditions under which manifests loss of stability when driving on ATV.
All terrain vehicles, Stability, Safety, Terrain
1. Ivanov R., Roussev R. Ilchev P.The influence of the normal tire forces on the vehicle’s critical speed. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engeneering, vol. 221, 2007, pp13-23
2. Ivanov R., Rusev R., Ilchev P. A laboratory investigation of tyre sliding grip coefficient. Litvania, Research Journal”TRANSPORT” , 2006, Vol 21, No 3, пп. 172-181, ISSN 1648-4142.
3. Moroney, P., M. Doyle, K. Mealy. All-terrain vehicles—unstable, unsafe and unregulated a prospective study of ATV-related trauma in rural Ireland. Ireland, 2002.
4. Rusev R.,R. Ivanov, G. Staneva, G. Kadikyanov. A study of the dynamic parameters influence over the behavior of the two-section articulated vehicle during the lane change maneuver. Poland, SJ Transport Problems, 2016, vol.11, Issue 1, p.p.29-40.
5. Иванов R., И. Евтимов, Е. Аврамов, Р.Русев. Определяне реакциите върху колелата на двуосен товарен автомобил. Варна, Сб. доклади на НТК с международно участие "Транспорт, екология - устойчиво развитие", 2012.
6. Любенов, С., Б. Ангелов, И. Евтимов. Автомобили и трактори. Експлоатационни свойства, Р., 2013, 81-85.
METHODOLOGY FOR MEASURED GRIP COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION BETHWEEN TIRE AND ROAD
Yuliyan Petrov, Lilo Kunchev
In the work is presented a methodology for determining the coefficient of adhesion between tire and road. The method is based on determining the maximum longitudinal force in the contact patch. For the purpose is created dynamometric cart, which allow determining longitudinal axis maximum force in the tire during the braking process.
Grip coefficient of friction, internal pressure, ground, tire, rubber, wheel and load.
1. Rule №13H ECE (Appendix 4).
2. Hlebarski D., Kunchev L. Methods for measuring road test of the wheel brakes of the cars in accordance with prescribed rules №13 and 13H ECE to the laboratory bench test., Ruse 2011.
3. Dimitrov J. Automotive Engineering. Publishing "Thrace", Sofia, 2000.
4. Nemchinov, M.V Coupling the quality of road surfaces and driving safety. Moscow, Transport 1985.
5. Karapetkov S., Petrov I. Methodology for studying the adhesion between wheel and road surfaces, Kavarna 2014.
6. Klets DM Analysis of the main methods for determining the traction coefficient of the road, International conference Eco Varna, 2012
7. Bouzid N, Heimann B Micro texture characterization and prognosis of the maximum traction between Grosch wheel and asphalt surfaces under wet conditions, 2010.
8. Völkl T., Lukesch R., Mühlmeier M., Graf M., Winner H., A modular race tire model concerning thermal and transient behavior using a simple contact patch description 2013.
9. Ivanov R., Roussev R. Ilchev P.The influence of the normal tire forces on the vehicle’s critical speed, 2007.
10. Rusev R., Ivanov R., Capitani R., Angelov B. Variation of the vehicle grip coefficient in braking and driving regimes, 2006.
11. Ivanov R., Roussev R. Ilchev P.The influence of the normal tire forces on the vehicle’s critical speed, 2007.
12. Ivanov R., Evtimov I., Kadikyanov D., Avramov E. Study of traction tire for a truck with a mobile experimental system, 2014.